Research Article| Volume 1, ISSUE 2, P285-309, June 1981

Download started.


Blood Component Therapy in Neonatal Medicine

  • Bruce A. Lenes
    Corresponding author: Georgetown University Hospital, 3800 Reservoir Road, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20007
    Senior Staff Fellow, Blood Bank, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

    Clinical Instructor ol Medicine, Department of Hematology, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, D.C.
    Search for articles by this author
  • Ronald A. Sacher
    Assistant Professor of Medicine and Pathology; Director of Blood Bank and Transfusion Service, and of Quality Control, Department of Clinical Laboratories, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, D.C.
    Search for articles by this author
      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
      Whole blood and packed red cell products, platelets, white cells, plasma, and plasma derivatives are available for support of the neonate who requires intensive care. The preparations, dosage, indications for, and disadvantages of each blood component are detailed.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Adner M.M.
        • Fisch G.R.
        • Starobin S.G.
        • et al.
        Use of “compatible” platelet transfusion in the treatment of congenital isoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura.
        N Engl. J. Med. 1969; 280: 244-247
        • Aisner J.
        Platelet transfusion therapy.
        Med. Clin. North Am. 1977; 61: 133-1145
        • Alter H.J.
        • Tabor E.
        • Meryman H.T.
        • et al.
        Transmission of hepatitis B virus infection by transfusion of frozen-deglycerolized red blood cells.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1978; 298: 637-642
        • American Academy of Pediatrics
        Report of the Committee on Infectious Disease. Edition 18. Illinois, Evanston1977
        • American Association of Blood Banks
        Technical Manual. Edition 7. AABB, Washington, D.C.1977: 378
        • Ashenhurst J.B.
        • Langehennig P.L.
        • Seeler R.A.
        • et al.
        Hemolytic anemia due to anti-B in antihemophiliac factor concentrates.
        J. Pediatr. 1976; 88: 257
      1. Aster, R. H., et al.: Which are the parameters to be controlled in platelet concentrates in order that they may be offered to the medical profession as a standarized product with specific properties. Vox Sang., in press

        • Aster R.H.
        • Becker F.A.
        • Hamid M.
        • et al.
        Storage of platelet concentrates at 4°C; use of refrigerated platelet concentrates in the treatment of hemorrhage in thrombocytopenic patients.
        in: Baldini M.G. Ebbe S. Platelets: Production, Function, Transfusion, and Storage. Grune and Stratton, New York1974: 361-370
        • Bachman R.
        Studies on the serum gamma A globulin level. III. The frequency of A-gamma A-globulinemia.
        Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 1968; 17: 316
        • Baehner R.L.
        • Strauss H.L.
        Hemophilia in the first year of life.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1966; 275: 524
        • Bailey D.N.
        • et al.
        Chemical and hematological changes in stored CPD blood.
        Transfusion. 1975; 15: 244
        • Barnard D.R.
        • et al.
        Blood for use in exchange transfusion in the newborn.
        Transfusion. 1980; 20: 401
        • Barr P.A.
        • Bailey P.E.
        • Sumners J.
        • et al.
        Relation between arterial blood pressure and blood volume and effect of infused albumin in sick preterm infants.
        Pediatrics. 1977; 60: 282-289
      2. Baum, J. D.: Available oxygen in preterm babies and retrolental fibroplasia. Lancet, 1:617

        • Baumann R.
        • Rubin H.
        Autoimmune hemolytic anemia during pregnancy with hemolytic disease in the newborn.
        Blood. 1973; 41: 293-297
      3. Beasley, P., et al.: Proceedings of the 1981 International Symposium on Viral Hepatitis. New York, New York, in press

        • Benbunen M.
        • et al.
        Granulocyte transfusion — an established or still experimental therapeutic procedure?.
        Vox Sang. 1980; 38: 40
        • Benesch R.
        • Benesch R.E.
        The effect of organic phosphates from the human erythrocyte on the allosteric properties of hemoglobin.
        Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1967; 26: 162
        • Benson J.W.
        • et al.
        Cytomegalovirus and blood transfusion in neonates.
        Arch. Dis. Child. 1979; 54: 538
        • Beutler E.
        • Wood L.
        The in vivo regeneration of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) after transfusion of stored blood.
        J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1969; 74: 300
        • Blankership W.J.
        • Goetzman B.W.
        • Gross S.
        • et al.
        A walking donor program for an intensive care program.
        J. Pediatr. 1975; 86: 583-585
        • Bleyer W.A.
        • Skinner A.L.
        Fatal neonatal hemorrhage after maternal anticonvulsant therapy.
        J.A.M.A. 1976; 235: 626-627
        • Boklan B.F.
        Factor IX concentrate and viral hepatitis.
        Ann. Intern. Med. 1971; 74: 298
        • Brunell P.A.
        • Gershorn A.A.
        • Hughes W.T.
        • et al.
        Prevention of varicella in high risk children; a collaborative study.
        Pediatrics. 1972; 50: 718
        • Buchanan G.R.
        Neonatal coagulation: Normal physiology and pathophysiology.
        Clin. Haematol. 1978; 7: 85
        • Buchholz D.H.
        Blood transfusion: Merits of component therapy.
        J. Pediatr. 1974; 84: 1-15
        • Buckley R.H.
        Replacement therapy in immunodeficiency.
        in: Thompson R.A. Recent Advances in Clinical Immunology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh1977
        • Burka E.R.
        • Puffer T.
        • Martinez J.
        The influence of donor characteristics and preparation methods on the potency of human cryoprecipitate.
        Transfusion. 1975; 15: 323
        • Burka E.R.
        • Harker L.A.
        • Kasper C.K.
        • et al.
        A protocol for cryoprecipitate production.
        Transfusion. 1975; 15: 307
        • Chan G.
        • Schoff D.
        Variance in albumin loading in exchange transfusions.
        J. Pediatr. 1976; 88: 609-613
        • Chanutin A.
        • Curnish R.A.
        Effect of organic and inorganic phosphates on the oxygen equilibrium of human erythrocytes.
        Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1967; 121: 96
      4. Cohen, A., et al.: Tranfusion in the newborn period. In Sherwood, W. C., and Cohen, A.(eds.): Transfusion Therapy: The Fetus, Infant and Child. New York, Masson Publishing Company, pp. 37-50

        • Cohn E.S.
        • Gard F.R.N.
        • Surgenor D.M.
        • et al.
        A system for the separation of the components of human blood; quantitative procedures for the separation of the protein component of human plasma.
        J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1950; 72: 465
        • Cohn E.J.
        • Strong L.E.
        • Hughes W.L.
        • et al.
        Preparation and properties of serum and plasma proteins. IV. A system for the separation into fractions of the protein and lipoprotein components of biological tissues and fluids.
        J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1946; 68: 459
        • Comley A.
        • Wood B.
        Albumin administration in exchange transfusion for hyperbilirubinaemia.
        Arch. Dis. Child. 1968; 43: 151-154
        • Daly P.A.
        • et al.
        Platelet transfusion therapy.
        J.A.M.A. 1980; 243: 435
        • Delivoria-Papadopoulos M.
        • et al.
        Neonatal oxygen transport: The role of exchange transfu sion.
        in: Sherwood W.C. Cohen A. Transfusion Therapy: The Fetus, Infant and Child. Masson Publishing Company, New York1980
        • Delivoria-Papadopoulos M.
        • Ronceivic N.P.
        • Oski F.A.
        Postnatal changes in oxygen transport of term, premature, and sick infants: The role of red cell, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adult hemoglobin.
        Pediatr. Res. 1971; 5: 235-246
        • Dennis R.C.
        • Hechtman H.B.
        • Berger R.L.
        • et al.
        Transfusion of 2,3 DPG enriched red blood cells to improve cardiac function.
        Ann. Thorac. Surg. 1978; 26: 17-26
        • DeVerdier C.H.
        • et al.
        Adenine in blood preparation posttransfusion viability and biochemical changes.
        Transfusion. 1964; 4: 331
        • Djerassi I.
        • Kim K.S.
        • Suvansri U.
        • et al.
        Continuous flow filtration leukapheresis.
        Transfusion. 1972; 12: 75-83
        • Faria R.
        • Finmara N.J.
        Hepatitis associated with Konyne.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1972; 287: 358
        • Filip D.G.
        • Aster R.H.
        Relative hemostatic effectiveness of human platelets stored at 4° and 22°C.
        J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1978; 91: 618-624
        • Ford J.M.
        • Cullen M.T.
        • Lucey J.J.
        • et al.
        Fatal graft-vs-host disease following transfusion of granulocytes from normal donors.
        Lancet. 1976; 2: 1167-1169
        • Fudenberg H.H.
        Sensitization to immunoglobulins and hazards of gammaglobulin therapy.
        in: Merler E. Immunoglobulins: Biologic Aspects and Clinical Uses. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.1971: 211-216
        • Fulginiti V.A.
        Active and passive immunization in the control of infectious disease.
        in: Stiehm E.R. Fulginiti V.A. Immunologic Disorders of Infants and Children. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia1973
        • Gardner F.H.
        Preservation and clinical use of platelets.
        in: Williams W.J. Beutler E. Erslev A.J. Hematology. Edition 2. McGraw-Hill, New York1977 (eds.)
        • Gardner F.H.
        Platelet transfusion.
        in: Baldini M.G. Ebbe S. Platelets: Production, Function, Transfusion, and Storage. Grune and Stratton, New York1974: 393-405
        • Gellis S.S.
        • Neefe J.R.
        • Stokes Jr., J.
        • et al.
        Chemical, clinical and immunological studies on the products of human plasma fractionation. XXXVI. Inactivation of the virus of homologous serum hepatitis in solutions of normal human serum albumin by means of heat.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1948; 27: 239
        • Gershorn A.A.
        • Steinberg S.
        • Brunell P.A.
        Zoster immune globulin; a further assessment.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1974; 290: 243
        • Gill F.M.
        Transfusion therapy for coagulation disorders in the newborn.
        in: Sherwood W.C. Cohen A. Transfusion Therapy: The Fetus, Infant and Child. Masson Publishing Co., New York1980: 75-94
        • Goldberg R.N.
        • et al.
        The association of rapid volume expansion and intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm infant.
        J. Pediatr. 1980; 96: 1060
        • Graham-Poole J.
        • Davie M.
        • Kershaw I.
        • et al.
        Granulocyte transfusion in treatment of infected neutropenic children.
        Arch. Dis. Child. 1976; 51: 521-527
        • Grajwer L.A.
        • Pildes R.S.
        • Zarif M.
        • et al.
        Exchange transfusion in the neonate: A controlled study using frozen-stored erythrocytes resuspended in plasma.
        Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 1976; 66: 117
        • Gralnick H.R.
        Factor VIII NIH Conference.
        Ann. Intern. Med. 1977; 86: 598
        • Gray J.M.
        The use of blood components in perinatal medicine.
        in: Seminar on Blood, Blood Components and Derivatives in Transfusion Therapy. AABB, Washington, D.C.1980: 147-169
        • Harris M.B.
        • Djerassi I.
        • Schwartz E.
        • et al.
        Polymorphonuclear leukocytes prepared by continuous flow filtration leukapheresis; viability and function.
        Blood. 1974; 44: 707-713
        • Hathaway W.E.
        The bleeding newborn.
        Semin. Hematol. 1975; 12: 175
        • Hattersley P.G.
        • Goetzmann B.W.
        • Gross S.
        • et al.
        A walking blood donor program for seriously ill premature infants.
        Transfusion. 1976; 16: 366-369
        • Haugen R.K.
        Hepatitis after the transfusion of frozen red cells and washed red cells.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1979; 301: 393
        • Havens Jr., W.P.
        • Paul J.R.
        Prevention of infectious hepatitis with gammaglobulin.
        J.A.M.A. 1945; 129: 270
        • Herzig G.P.
        • Root P.K.
        • Graw Jr., R.G.
        Granulocyte collection by continuous-flow filtration leukapheresis.
        Blood. 1972; 39: 554-567
        • Higby D.J.
        • Freeman A.
        • Henderson E.S.
        • et al.
        Granulocyte transfusions in children using filter collected cells.
        Cancer. 1976; 38: 1407-1413
        • Higby D.J.
        • Burnett D.
        Granulocyte transfusions: Current status.
        Blood. 1980; 55: 2
        • Hill H.R.
        Phagocyte transfusion — ultimate therapy of neonatal disease (editorial).
        J. Pediatr. 1981; 90: 59
      5. Hill, R. M., et al.: Utilization of blood components in neonatal medicine. In Seminar on Perinatal Blood Banking, 31st Annual Meeting AABB, 1978, pp. 109-126

        • Hobbs J.R.
        Immune imbalance in dysgammaglobulinemia type IV.
        Lancet. 1968; 1: 110
        • Howard P.
        Transfusion. 1977; 17: 396
        • Huestis D.W.
        • White R.F.
        • Price J.
        • et al.
        Use of hydroxyethyl starch to improve granulocyte collection in the Latham blood processor.
        Transfusion. 1975; 15: 559-564
        • Johnson A.J.
        • Aronson D.L.
        • Williams W.J.
        Preparation and clinical use of plasma and plasma fractions.
        in: Williams W.J. Beutler E. Erslev A.J. Hematology. Edition 2. McGraw-Hill, New York1977: 1561 (eds.)
        • Jones J.G.
        • Holland B.M.
        • Veale K.E.A.
        • et al.
        Available oxygen: A realistic expression of the ability of the blood to supply oxygen to the tissues.
        Scand. J. Haematol. 1979; 22: 77-82
        • Judelsohn R.G.
        • Meyers J.D.
        • Ellis R.J.
        • et al.
        Efficacy of zoster immune globulin.
        Pediatrics. 1974; 53: 476
      6. Kakaiya, R. M., et al.: Problems with a walking donor transfusion program. Transfusion, 19:577

        • Kakaiya R.M.
        • Morrison F.S.
        • Rawson J.E.
        • et al.
        Pedi-Pack transfusion in a newborn intensive care unit.
        Transfusion. 1979; 19: 19
        • Kasper C.K.
        • Myhre B.A.
        • McDonald J.D.
        • et al.
        Determinants of factor VIII recovery in cryoprecipitate.
        Transfusion. 1975; 15: 312
        • Kingdon H.S.
        • Lundblad R.L.
        • Veltkamp J.J.
        • et al.
        Potentially thrombogenic material in factor IX concentrates.
        Thromb. Diath. Haemorrh. 1975; 33: 617
        • Kinsey V.E.
        • Patz J.
        • Stern L.
        Oxygen and retrolental fibroplasia; in defense of data.
        Pediatrics. 1978; 62: 439-440
        • Kliman A.J.
        • Schwab P.J.
        Plasmapheresis with simple equipment.
        Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 1961; 36: 379
      7. Koch, P. A., et al.: Granulocyte transfusions. In Sherwood, W. C., and Cohen, A.(eds.): Transfusion Therapy: The Fetus, Infant and Child. New York, Masson Publishing Co., 1980.

        • Kohler P.F.
        • et al.
        Prevention of chronic neonatal hepatitis B virus infection with antibody to the hepatitis B surface antigen.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1980; 291: 1378
        • Konugres A.A.
        Transfusion therapy for the neonate.
        in: Seminar on Perinatal Blood Banking. American Association of Blood Banks, Washington, D.C.1978: 93-107
      8. Kotelba-Witkowska, B., et al.: Cryopreservation of platelet concentrate using glycerol glucose. Presented at AABB 33rd Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1980

        • Laurenti F.
        • et al.
        Transfusion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils in a premature infant with Klebsiella sepsis.
        Lancet. 1978; 2: 111-112
        • Laurenti F.
        • Ferro R.
        • Isacchi G.
        • et al.
        Polymorphonuclear leukocyte transfusion for the treatment of sepsis in the newborn infant.
        J. Pediatr. 1981; 98: 118
        • Lusher J.M.
        • Barnhardt M.I.
        Congenital disorders affecting platelet function.
        Semin. Thromb. Hemostas. 1977; 4: 123-186
        • Maak B.
        • Frenzel J.
        • Rogner G.
        Aggregation of blood platelets and clot retraction in mature and premature infants.
        Z. Kinderheilkd. 1972; 111: 325
        • Mackay M.
        • Vallet L.
        • Cambridge B.S.
        The characterization and stability during storage of human immunoglobulin prepared for clinical use.
        Vox Sang. 1973; 25: 124
        • McCredie K.B.
        • Freireich E.J.
        • Hester J.P.
        • et al.
        Increased graulocyte collection with the blood cell separator and the addition of etiocholanolone and hydroxyethyl starch.
        Transfusion. 1974; J4: 357-364
        • McGill M.
        Platelet storage by temperature cycling.
        in: Greenwalt T.J. The Blood Platelet in Transfusion Therapy. Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York1978: 119-139 (eds.)
        • McCullough J.
        • Weiblen B.J.
        • Deinard A.R.
        • et al.
        In vitro function and posttransfusion survival of granulocytes collected by continuous flow centrifugation and by filtration leukapheresis.
        Blood. 1976; 48: 315-326
        • Meryman H.T.
        The preparation of leukocyte poor red blood cells: A comparative study.
        Transfusion. 1980; 20: 285
        • Mull M.M.
        • Hathaway W.D.
        Altered platelet function in the neonate.
        Pediatr. Res. 1970; 4: 229
        • Murphy S.
        Platelet transfusion.
        Prog. Hemostas. Thromb. 1976; 3: 289-310
      9. Murphy, S., et al.: Improved platelet preservation in a new container. Abstract presented at AABB 33rd Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C., 1980

        • Murphy S.
        • Gardner F.H.
        Platelet physiology.
        in: Nathan D.G. Oski F.A. Hematology of Infancy and Childhood. W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia1974: 636
        • Niosi P.
        • Londberg J.
        • McCullough J.
        • et al.
        Blood group antibodies in human immune serum globulin.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1971; 285: 1435
        • Nitschman H.
        • Rickli E.
        • Kistler P.
        Fractionation of human plasma with polyphosphate.
        Vox Sang. 1960; 5: 232
        • Oberman H.A.
        Replacement transfusion in the newborn infant. A commentary.
        1. Pediatr. 1975; 86: 586
        • Oberman H.A.
        Transfusion of the neonatal patient.
        Transfusion. 1974; 14: 183
        • Parkman R.
        • Mosier D.
        • Umansky I.
        • et al.
        Graft-versus-host disease after intrauterine and exchange transfusion for hemolytic disease of the newborn.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1974; 290: 359-363
        • Paxton Jr., C.J.
        Collection and use of autologous fetal blood.
        Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 1979; 134: 708
        • Pass M.A.
        • Johnson J.D.
        • Shulman I.A.
        • et al.
        Evaluation of a walking donor blood transfusion program in an intensive care nursery.
        J. Pediatr. 1976; 89: 646
        • Pearson H.A.
        • Shulman N.R.
        • Marder V.J.
        • et al.
        Isoimmune neonatal thrombocytopenic purpura: Clinical and therapeutic considerations.
        Blood. 1964; 23: 154-177
        • Pearson H.A.
        • Mcintosh S.
        Neonatal thrombocytopenia.
        Clin. Haematol. 1978; 7: 111-122
        • Pool J.G.
        Cryoprecipitate quality and supply.
        Transfusion. 1975; 15: 305
        • Pool J.G.
        • Shannon A.E.
        Production of high-potency concentrates of antihemophilic globulin in a closed-bag system: Assay in vitro and in vivo.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1965; 273: 1443
        • Poschman A.
        • et al.
        Exchange transfusion with heparinized fresh blood in necrotising enterocolitis (letter).
        Lancet. 1979; J: 824-825
        • Rausen A.R.
        • Seki M.
        • Strauss L.
        Twin transfusion syndrome.
        J. Pediatr. 1965; 66: 613-628
        • Raye J.R.
        • Gutberlet R.L.
        • Stahlman M.
        Symptomatic posthemorrhagic anemia in the newborn.
        Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 1970; 17: 401-413
        • Robinson R.O.
        • Fujimura M.
        • Howat P.
        • et al.
        Effect of blood transfusion in low birthweight infants.
        Arch. Dis. Child. 1977; 52: 696-699
        • Rosen R.C.
        • Huestis D.W.
        • Corrigan J.J.
        Acute leukemia and granulocyte transfusion; fatal graft-vs-host reaction following transfusion of cells obtained from normal donors.
        J. Pediatr. 1978; 93: 268-270
        • Ryden S.E.
        • et al.
        Compatibility of common intravenous solutions with CPD blood.
        Transfusion. 1975; 15: 250
        • Sandler S.
        Recent advances in the practice and technology of blood transfusion.
        Prim. Care. 1980; 7: 347
        • Schiffer C.A.
        Some aspects of recent advances in the use of blood cell components.
        Br. J. Haematol. 1978; 39: 289
        • Schroeder D.D.
        • Moze M.M.
        Australia antigen: Distribution during Cohn ethanol fractionation of human plasma.
        Science. 1970; 168: 1462
        • Schultze H.E.W.
        • Heremans J.F.
        Methods for plasma protein fractionation.
        in: Molecular Biology of Human Proteins. Vol. 1. Elsevier, New York1966
        • Schweizer O.
        • Howland W.S.
        Potassium levels, acid-base balance, and massive blood replacement.
        Anesthesiology. 1962; 23: 735
        • Seeler R.A.
        • Massumeh T.
        • Langehenning P.L.
        • et al.
        Comparison of anti-A and anti-B titers in factor VIII and IX concentrates.
        J. Pediatr. 1976; 89: 87
        • Seger R.
        • et al.
        Potential hazards of blood transfusion in Clostridia associated necrotizing enterocolitis (letter).
        Lancet. 1976; 1: 48-49
        • Sell E.J.
        • Corrigan J.J.
        Platelet counts, fibrinogen concentrations, and factor V, and factor VIII levels in healthy infants according to gestational age.
        J. Pediatr. 1973; 82: 1089
        • Serota F.T.
        • et al.
        Transfusion therapy in immunodeficient children.
        in: Sherwood W.C. Cohen A. Transfusion Therapy: The Fetus, Infant and Child. Masson Publishing Co, New York1980
        • Shigeoka A.O.
        • Hall R.T.
        • Hill H.R.
        Blood-transfusion in group-B streptococcal sepsis.
        Lancet. 1978; 1: 636-638
        • Shulman N.R.
        Immunological considerations attending platelet transfusion.
        Transfusion. 1966; 6: 39-49
        • Siegel S.E.
        • Lunde M.N.
        • Gelderman A.H.
        • et al.
        Transmission of toxoplasmosis by leukocyte transfusion.
        Blood. 1971; 37: 388-394
        • Sills R.H.
        • Stuart M.J.
        Platelet transfusion in the newborn.
        in: Sherwood W.C. Cohen A. Transfusion Therapy: The Fetus, Infant, and Child. Masson Publishing Co, New York1980: 95-111
        • Simon E.R.
        Adenine in blood banking.
        Transfusion. 1977; 17: 317
        • Simon G.E.
        • Bove J.R.
        The potassium load from blood transfusion.
        Postgrad. Med. 1971; 49: 61
        • Slichter S.J.
        • Harker L.A.
        Preparation and storage of platelet concentrates.
        Br. J. Haematol. 1976; 34: 403
        • Sohmer P.R.
        • et al.
        The significance of 2,3 DPG in red blood cell transfusion.
        CRC Crit. Rev. Clin. Lab. Sci. 1979; 11: 107
        • Sohmer P.R.
        • et al.
        Clinical implications of stored blood.
        in: Sherwood W.C. Cohen A. Transfusion Therapy: The Fetus, Infant and Child. Masson Publishing Co, New York1980: 51-62
        • Steigbigel R.T.
        • Baum J.
        • MacPhearson J.L.
        • et al.
        Granulocyte bactericidal capacity and chemotaxis as affected by continuous flow centrifugation and filtration leukapheresis, steroid administration and storage.
        Blood. 1978; 52: 197-209
        • Stiehm E.R.
        Standard and special human immune serum globulins as therapeutic agents.
        Pediatrics. 1979; 63: 301-309
        • Stockman III, J.A.
        Anemia of prematurity.
        Clin. Perinatol. 1977; 4: 239
        • Stokes Jr., J.
        • Neefe J.R.
        The prevention and attenuation of infectious hepatitis by gammaglobulin.
        J.A.M.A. 1945; 127: 144
      10. Stuart, M. J.: Platelet function in the neonate. Am. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol, in press

        • Stuart M.J.
        • Murphy S.
        • Oski F.A.
        • et al.
        Platelet function in recipients of platelets from donors ingesting aspirin.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1972; 287: 1105-1109
        • Szmuness W.
        • et al.
        Hepatitis B vaccine—demonstration of efficacy in a controlled clinical trial in a high risk population in the U.S.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1980; 303: 833
        • Tullis J.L.
        • Hinman J.
        • Sproul M.T.
        Incidence of posttransfusion hepatitis in previously frozen blood.
        J.A.M.A. 1970; 124: 719
        • Tyuma I.
        • Shimzu K.
        Different response to organic phosphate of human fetal and adult hemoglobins.
        Arch. Biochem. 1969; 219: 404
        • Valeri C.R.
        • Zaroulis C.G.
        • Vecchione J.J.
        • et al.
        Therapeutic effectiveness and safety of outdated human red blood cells rejuvenated to improve oxygen transport function, frozen for about ½ years at -80c washed and stored at 4c for 24 hr prior to rapid infusion.
        Transfusion. 1980; 20: 159
      11. Vyas G.N. Viral Hepatitis. Franklin Institute Press, Philadelphia1978: 743
        • Waldmann T.A.
        • Strober W.
        • Blase R.W.
        Variations in the metabolism of immunoglobu lins as measured by turnover rates.
        in: Merler E. Immunoglobulin: Biologic Aspects and Clinical Uses. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C1980: 35-51
        • Ward R.
        • Krugman S.
        Etiology, epidemiology, and prevention of viral hepatitis.
        Prog. Med. Virol. 1962; 4: 87
        • Wardrop C. A.J.
        • Holland V.M.
        • Veale K. E.A.
        • et al.
        Nonphysiological anemia of prematurity.
        Arch. Dis. Child. 1978; 53: 855-860
        • Wilson R.
        • Mammen E.
        • Walt A.J.
        Eight years of experience with massive blood transfusion.
        J. Trauma. 1971; 11: 275
        • Wright D.G.
        • Kauffman J.C.
        • Chusid M.J.
        • et al.
        Functional abnormalities of human neutrophils collected by continuous flow filtration leukapheresis.
        Blood. 1975; 46: 901-911
        • Yankee R.A.
        HLA antigens and platelet therapy.
        in: Baldini M.G. Ebbe S. Platelets: Production, Function, Transfusion, and Storage. Grune and Stratton, New York1974: 313-326
        • Yeager A.S.
        Transfusion acquired cytomegalovirus infection in newborn infants.
        Am. J. Dis. Child. 1975; 128: 478
      12. Yeager, A. S.: Prevention of transfusion associated cytomegalovirus infection in premature infants. Abstract presented at AABB 33rd Annual Meeting, Washington, D.C, 1980