Research Article| Volume 4, ISSUE 4, P763-774, December 1984

The Laboratory Evaluation of Osteopenia

      This paper is only available as a PDF. To read, Please Download here.
      Osteopenia is being increasingly recognized as an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and as the cause of a massive health care expense. This realization, and a much greater understanding of mineral and bone metabolism, has resulted in an increase in the sophistication of diagnostic methods. In this article, the authors review the current status of the laboratory evaluation of osteopenia, emphasizing the roles and utilities of specific diagnostic procedures.
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Austin L.A.
        • Heath III, H.
        Calcitonin: Physiology and pathophysiology.
        N. Engl. J. Med. 1981; 304: 269-278
        • Broadus A.E.
        Mineral metabolism.
        in: Felig P. Endocrinology and Metabolism. McGraw-Hill, New York1981
        • Hodgkinson A.
        • Thompson T.
        Measurement of the fasting urinary hydroxyproline:creatinine ratio in normal adults and its variation with age and sex.
        J. Clin. Pathol. 1982; 35: 807-811
        • Jaworski Z.F.G.
        Physiology and pathology of bone remodeling. Cellular basis of bone structure in health and in osteoporosis.
        Orthop. Clin. North Am. 1981; 12: 485-512
        • Mawer E.B.
        Clinical implications of measurements of circulating vitamin D metabolites.
        Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1980; 9: 63-78
        • Mazess R.B.
        Noninvasive methods for quantitating trabecular bone.
        in: Avioli L.V. The Osteoporotic Syndrome. Grune & Stratton, New York1983: 85-114
        • Meisen F.
        • Mosekilde L.
        The role of bone biopsy in the diagnosis of metabolic bone disease.
        Orthop. Clin. North Am. 1981; 12: 571-602
        • Moss D.W.
        Alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes.
        Clin. Chem. 1982; 28: 2007
        • Norman A.W.
        • Roth J.
        • Orei L.
        The vitamin D endocrine system: steroid metabolism, hormone receptors, and biological response (calcium binding proteins).
        Endoc. Rev. 1982; 3: 331-366
        • Parfitt A.M.
        The actions of parathyroid hormone on bone: Relation to bone remodeling and turnover, calcium homeostasis, and metabolic bone disease. Part I of IV parts. Mechanisms of calcium transfer between blood and bone and their cellular basis: Morphological and kinetic approaches to bone turnover.
        Metabolism. 1976; 25: 809-844
        • Peach H.
        • Compston J.E.
        • Vedi S.
        • et al.
        Value of plasma calcium, phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase measurements in the diagnosis of histological osteomalacia.
        J. Clin. Pathol. 1982; 35: 625-630
        • Peck W.A.
        • Klahr S.
        Cyclic nucleotides in bone and mineral metabolism.
        in: Greengard P. Robison G.A. Advances in Cyclic Nucleotide Research. Vol. 11. Raven Press, New York1980: 90-130
        • Posen S.
        • Cornish C.
        • Kleerekoper M.
        Alkaline phosphatase and metabolic bone disorders.
        in: Avioli L.V. Krane S.M. Metabolic Bone Disease. Vol. I. Academic Press, New York1977: 141-181
        • Price P.A.
        • Parthemore J.G.
        • Deftos L.F.
        • et al.
        New biological marker for bone metabolism. Measurement by radioimmunoassay of bone GLA protein in the plasma of normal subjects and patients with bone disease.
        J. Clin. Invest. 1980; 66: 878-883
        • Raisz L.G.
        Bone metabolism and calcium regulation.
        in: Avioli L.V. Krane S.M. Metabolic Bone Disease. Academic Press, New York1977: 1-48
        • Stamp T.C.B.
        The clinical endocrinology of vitamin D.
        in: Parsons J.A. Endocrinology of Calcium Metabolism. Raven Press, New York1982: 363-422
        • Zanelli J.M.
        • Gaines-Das R.E.
        The first international reference preparation of human parathyroid hormone for immunoassay: Characterization and calibration by international collaborative study.
        J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1983; 57: 462-469