Research Article| Volume 13, ISSUE 1, P89-102, March 1993

Diagnosis of Acute and Chronic Renal Failure

  • Carlos Hugo Espinel
    Address reprint requests to: Carlos Hugo Espinel, MD, Director, The Blood Pressure Center, Metropolitan Washington, 1715 North George Mason Drive, Suite 401, Arlington, VA 22205.
    From The Blood Pressure Center, Metropolitan Washington, DC, Arlington, Virginia

    Department of Medicine, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC
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      This article presents a systematic approach—through history, physical examination, and laboratory findings—for the pursuit of the diagnosis of acute and chronic renal failure. These guidelines are based on the pathophysiology of the syndromes. In management, they serve the goal of staying the failure and regaining renal function.
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