Review Article| Volume 38, ISSUE 1, P175-182, March 2018

Cytopathology in Low Medical Infrastructure Countries

Why and How to Integrate to Capacitate Health Care
Published:December 23, 2017DOI:


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Adesina A.
        • Chumba D.
        • Nelson A.M.
        Cancer control in Africa 2. Improvement of pathology in sub-Saharan Africa.
        Lancet Oncol. 2013; 14: e152-157
        • Crisp N.
        • Chen L.
        Global supply of health professionals.
        N Engl J Med. 2014; 370: 950-957
        • African Strategies for Advancing Pathology Group Members
        Quality pathology and laboratory diagnostic services are key to improving global health outcomes: improving global health outcomes is not possible without accurate disease diagnosis.
        Am J Clin Pathol. 2015; 143: 325-328
        • Alleyne G.
        • Binagwaho A.
        • Haines A.
        • et al.
        • The Lancet NCD Action Group
        Non-communicable diseases 1. Embedding non-communicable diseases in the post-2015 development agenda.
        Lancet. 2013; 381: 566-574
        • Stenberg K.
        • Hanssen O.
        • Edejer T.T.
        • et al.
        Financing transformative health systems towards achievement of the heath sustainable development goals: a model for projected resource needs in 67 low-income and middle-income countries.
        Lancet Glob Health. 2017; 5: e875-e887
        • Wright C.A.
        • Pienaar J.P.
        • Marais B.J.
        FNAB: diagnostic utility in resource-limited settings.
        Ann Trop Paediatr. 2008; 28: 65-70
        • Wright C.A.
        • van der Burg M.
        • Geiger D.
        Diagnosing mycobacterial lymphadenitis in children using FNAB: cytomorphology. ZN staining and autofluorescence—making more of less.
        Diagn Cytopathol. 2008; 36: 245-251
        • Michelow P.
        • Omar T.
        • Field A.
        • et al.
        The cytopathology of mycobacterial infection.
        Diagn Cytopathol. 2016; 44: 255-262
        • Field A.S.
        • Geddie W.R.
        Cytohistology of lymph nodes and spleen, Papanicolaou Society small biopsy monograph series.
        Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (UK)2014
        • Field A.S.
        • Geddie W.
        Role of FNAC in the diagnosis of infections.
        Diagn Cytopathol. 2016; 44: 1024-1038
        • Field A.S.
        • Zarka M.
        Practical cytopathology: a pattern recognition diagnostic approach.
        Elsevier, New York2017
        • Field A.S.
        Training for cytotechnologists and cytopathologists in the developing world.
        Cytopathology. 2016; 27: 313-316
        • Field A.S.
        • Geddie W.
        • Zarka M.
        • et al.
        Assisting cytopathology training in medically under-resourced countries: defining the problems and establishing solutions.
        Diagn Cytopathol. 2012; 40: 273-281
        • Rossi E.D.
        • Gerhard R.
        • Cirnes L.
        • et al.
        Detection of common and less frequent mutations in cytological samples of lung cancer.
        Acta Cytol. 2014; 58: 275-280
        • Malapelle U.
        • Mayo-de Las-Casas C.
        • Molina-Vila M.A.
        • et al.
        Consistency and reproducibility of next-generation sequencing and other multigene mutational assays: a worldwide ring trial study on quantitative cytological molecular reference specimens.
        Cancer. 2017; 125 (Available at:): 615-626
        • Field A.S.
        • Schmitt F.
        • Vielh P.
        IAC standardized reporting of breast FNAC.
        Acta Cytol. 2017; 61: 3-6
        • Field A.S.
        Breast FNA biopsy cytology: current problems and the IAC Yokohama standardized reporting system.
        Cancer Cytopath. 2017; 125: 229-230
      1. Muchiri L, Sayed S, Rajab J, et al. Improving the quality of FNA, bone marrow aspirate and bone marrow trephine procedures and specimen processing at tertiary referral hospitals in Kenya. AORTIC Abstract, held at Kigali, Rwanda, November 7-10, 2017.