Review Article| Volume 35, ISSUE 3, P703-721, September 2015

Evaluation of the Blood Film


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.


      Subscribe to Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Moore D.M.
        Hematology of the rat (Rattus norvegicus).
        in: Feldman B.F. Zinkl J.G. Jain N.C. Schalm’s veterinary hematology. 5th edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2000: 1210-1218
        • Moore D.M.
        Hematology of the mouse (Mus musculus).
        in: Feldman B.F. Zinkl J.G. Jain N.C. Schalm’s veterinary hematology. 5th edition. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2000: 1219-1224
        • Everds N.E.
        Hematology of the laboratory mouse.
        in: 2nd edition. The mouse in biomedical research. vol. 3. Elsevier, Amsterdam2006: 133-170
        • Hibiya T.
        An atlas of fish histology, normal and pathological features.
        Kodansha Ltd, Tokyo1985
        • Weiss D.J.
        Uniform evaluation and semiquantitative reporting of hematologic data in veterinary laboratories.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 1984; 13: 27-31
        • Herbert R.
        • Nanney J.
        • Spano J.S.
        • et al.
        Erythrocyte distribution in ducks.
        Am J Vet Res. 1989; 50: 958-960
        • Tell L.A.
        • Ferrell S.T.
        • Gibbons P.M.
        Avian mycobacteriosis in free-living raptors in California: 6 cases (1997-2001).
        J Avian Med Surg. 2004; 18: 30-40
        • Wolf T.
        • Niehaus-Rolf C.
        • Luepke N.P.
        Some new methodological aspects of the hen’s egg test for micronucleus induction (HET-MN).
        Mutat Res. 2002; 514: 59-76
        • Gómez-Meda B.C.
        • Zamora-Perez A.L.
        • Luna-Aguirre J.
        • et al.
        Nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of parrots (Aratinga canicularis) related to genotoxic damage.
        Avian Pathol. 2006; 35: 206-210
        • Lucas A.J.
        • Jamroz C.
        Atlas of avian hematology, United States Department of Agriculture Monograph #25.
        U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC1961
      1. Romagnano A. Binucleate erythrocytes and erythrocytic dysplasia in a cockatiel. In: Proceedings of the Association of Avian Veterinarians. Reno, September 28–30, 1994.

        • Hawkey C.M.
        • Dennett T.B.
        A colour atlas of comparative veterinary haematology.
        Wolfe Medical Publications, Ltd, London1989
        • Campbell T.W.
        • Ellis C.K.
        Avian and exotic animal hematology and cytology.
        3rd edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Ames (IA)2007
        • Turner R.J.
        in: Rowley A. Ratcliffe N. Vertebrate blood cells. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge1988: 129-209
        • Pfeiffer C.J.
        • Pyle H.
        • Asashima M.
        Blood cell morphology and counts in the Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster).
        J Zoo Wildl Med. 1990; 21: 56-64
        • Zinkl J.G.
        • Cox W.T.
        • Kono C.S.
        Morphology and cytochemistry in leucocytes and thrombocytes of six species of fish.
        Comp Haemat Inter. 1991; 1: 187-195
        • Saunders D.C.
        Differential blood cell counts of 121 species of marine fishes of Puerto Rico.
        Trans Am Microsc Soc. 1966; 85: 427-499
        • Ellis A.E.
        The leukocytes of fish: a review.
        J Fish Biol. 1977; 11: 453-491
        • Mainwaring G.
        • Rowley A.F.
        Studies on granulocyte heterogenicity in elasmobranchs.
        in: Mainwaring G. Rowley A. Fish immunology. Academic Press, New York1985: 57-69
        • Filho S.W.
        • Eble G.J.
        • Kassner G.
        • et al.
        Comparative hematology in marine fish.
        Comp Biochem Physiol. 1992; 102: 311-321
        • Hine P.M.
        The granulocytes of fish.
        Fish Shellfish Immunol. 1992; 2: 79-98
        • Arnold J.
        Hematology of the sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus: standardization of complete blood count techniques for elasmobranchs.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2005; 34: 115-123
        • Walsh C.J.
        • Luer C.A.
        Elasmobranch hematology: identification of cell types and practical applications.
        in: Smith M. Warmolts D. Thoney D. The elasmobranch husbandry manual: captive care of sharks, rays, and their relatives. Biological Survey, Inc, Columbus (OH)2004: 301-323
        • Weiser G.
        Introduction to leukocytes and the leukogram.
        in: Thrall M.A. Weiser G. Allison R.W. Veterinary hematology and clinical chemistry. 2nd edition. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames (IA)2012: 118-122
        • Weiser G.
        • Thrall M.A.
        Introduction to leukocytes and the leukogram.
        in: Thrall M.A. Baker D.C. Campbell T.W. Veterinary hematology and clinical chemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia2004: 125-130
        • Peirce M.A.
        • Lederer R.
        • Adlard R.D.
        • et al.
        Pathology associated with endogenous development of haemoatozoa in birds from southeast Queensland.
        Avian Pathol. 2004; 33: 445-450
        • Castro I.
        • Howe L.
        • Tompkins D.M.
        • et al.
        Presence and seasonal prevalence of Plasmodium spp in a rare endemic New Zealand passerine (Tieke or Saddleback, Philesturnus carunculatus).
        J Wildl Dis. 2011; 47: 860-867
        • Evans M.
        • Otter A.
        Fatal combined infection with Haemoproteus noctuae and Leucocytozoon ziemanni in juvenile snowy owls (Nyctea scandiaca).
        Vet Rec. 1998; 143: 72-76
        • Michot T.C.
        • Garvin M.C.
        • Weidner E.H.
        Survey for blood parasites in redheads (Aythya americana) wintering at the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana.
        J Wildl Dis. 1995; 31: 90-92
        • Soulsby E.J.
        Helminths, arthropods, and protozoa of domesticated animals.
        in: Soulsby E.J. Helminths, arthropods, and protozoa of domesticated animals. 7th edition. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia1982: 689-728
        • Bennet G.F.
        • Pierce M.A.
        Leucocytozoids of seven Old World passeriform families.
        J Nat Hist. 1992; 26: 693-707
        • Gardiner C.H.
        • Fayer R.
        • Dubey J.P.
        An atlas of protozoan parasites in animal tissues. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook.
        U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC1988
        • Desser S.S.
        • Barta J.R.
        The morphological features of Aegyptianella bacterifera: an intraerythrocytic rickettsia of frogs from Corsica.
        J Wildl Dis. 1989; 25: 313-318
        • Telford S.R.
        Haemoparasites of reptiles.
        in: Hoff G. Frye G. Jacobson E. Diseases of amphibians and reptiles. Plenum Book Co, New York1984: 385-517
        • Telford S.R.
        The hemogregarines.
        in: Telford S.R. Hemoparasites of the Reptilia, Color Atlas and Text. CRC Press, Boca Raton (FL)2009: 199-260
        • Chang L.
        • Jacobson E.R.
        Inclusion body disease, a worldwide infectious disease of boid snakes: a review.
        J Exotic Pet Med. 2010; 19: 216-225
        • Banajee K.H.
        • Chang L.W.
        • Jacobson E.R.
        • et al.
        What is your diagnosis? Blood film from a boa constrictor.
        Vet Clin Pathol. 2012; 41: 158-159