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Dengue Virus

      Keywords

      Overview

      Dengue fever (DF), the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral illness in humans, is caused by the dengue virus (DENV). The 4 serotypes of DENV (DENV 1-4) are transmitted to humans primarily by the Aedes aegypti mosquito (Fig. 1).
      Figure thumbnail gr1
      Fig. 1The A aegypti mosquito is the most common epidemic vector for spread of dengue virus. It can be identified by the white bands or scale patterns on its legs and thorax.
      Courtesy of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/dengue.
      DENV is a member of the Flaviviridae family and is related to the viruses that cause yellow fever and the Japanese, St. Louis, and West Nile encephalitides.
      • Burke D.S.
      • Monath T.P.
      Flaviviruses.
      Infection by DENV causes a spectrum of clinical diseases that range from an acute debilitating, self-limited febrile illness, DF, to a life-threatening hemorrhagic and capillary leak syndrome of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). DENV causes an estimated 25 to 100 million cases of DF and 250,000 cases of DHF per year worldwide, with 2.5 billion people at risk of infection.
      • Halstead S.B.
      Pathogenesis of dengue: challenges to molecular biology.
      • Monath T.P.
      Dengue: the risk to developed and developing countries.
      At present, no approved antiviral treatment or vaccine is in use, and therapy is supportive in nature (Fig. 2).
      Figure thumbnail gr2
      Fig. 2World map indicating regions with known risks of dengue infection.
      Courtesy of CDC, available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/dengue.
      Epidemic DHF was first recognized in the 1950s in Southeast Asia, and by 1975 it had become a leading cause of hospitalization and death among children in many countries in that region. In the 1980s, DHF began a second expansion into Asia, and in countries where DHF is endemic, the epidemics have become progressively larger over the last 15 years (Box 1). In 1980, the first indigenous transmission of dengue in the United States in more than 40 years occurred. Later, infections also occurred in Texas. In 2001 to 2002, a dengue outbreak occurred in Hawaii spread by Aedes albopictus mosquitoes.
      Recent dengue virus infections in the United States
      • Texas:
        • 1980: 23 cases, first locally acquired since 1945
        • 1986: 9 cases
        • 1995: 7 cases
        • 1997: 3 cases
        • 1998: 1 case
        • 1999: 18 cases
        • 2005: 25 cases
      • Hawaii:
        • 2001 to 2002: 122 cases (first since 1944)
      The Americas have seen the most dramatic rise in the emergence of dengue cases (Fig. 3). The mosquito vector for dengue was eradicated in most of the region as part of the Pan American Health Organization's yellow fever eradication campaign in the 1950s and 1960s. The A aegypti eradication program was officially discontinued in the United States and other Western Hemisphere regions, leading to reinfestation of the mosquito vector in most countries during the 1980s and 1990s. By 1997, the geographic distribution of A aegypti was wider than its distribution before the eradication program. Dengue is now endemic in much of the Western Hemisphere. Hyperendemicity, the presence of multiple circulating serotypes, is widespread in most countries and epidemics caused by multiple serotypes are more frequent.
      Figure thumbnail gr3
      Fig. 3Reinfestation of A aegypti in the Americas Unfortunately, the success of the eradication campaign was not sustained. Beginning in the early 1970s, it began to be disbanded, and many countries channeled their limited resources into other areas. Consequently, A aegypti began to reinfest the countries from which it had been eradicated. Comparing the 1970 and 2006 maps, the mosquito is seen reestablishing itself throughout Central America and most of South America. As the mosquito has spread, the number and frequency of dengue epidemics have increased, as has dengue hemorrhagic fever activity in the Americas.
      Courtesy of CDC, available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/dengue.

      Virology

      DENV is an enveloped virus with a single-stranded, positive-sense 10.7 kilobase RNA genome,
      • Chambers T.J.
      • Hahn C.S.
      • Galler R.
      • et al.
      Flavivirus genome organization, expression, and replication.
      which is translated as a single polyprotein and then cleaved into 3 structural proteins (capsid [C], premembrane/membrane [prM/M], and envelope [E]) and 7 nonstructural (NS) proteins by virus- and host-encoded proteases. The 3 structural components are required for capsid formation (C) and assembly into viral particles (prM and E). The NS proteins contain a serine protease and ATP-dependent helicase (NS3), which is required for virus polyprotein processing, a methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (NS5), and a cofactor for the NS3 protease (NS2B). NS4B has been implicated in blocking the interferon (IFN) response. NS1, NS2A, and NS4A have either unknown or incompletely understood functions. All the NS proteins appear to be necessary for efficient replication.
      In primary DENV infection, the virus enters target cells after the E protein adheres to cell surface receptors, such as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) on dendritic cells.
      • Tassaneetrithep B.
      • Burgess T.
      • Granelli-Piperno A.
      • et al.
      DC-SIGN (CD209) mediates dengue virus infection of human dendritic cells.
      Viral uptake occurs by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Endosomal acidification induces a conformational change in the E protein, resulting in fusion of the viral and endosomal membranes and nucleocapsid release into the cytoplasm.
      • Heinz F.
      • Auer G.
      • Stiasny K.
      • et al.
      The interactions of the flavivirus envelope proteins: implications for virus entry and release.
      • Heinz F.
      • Stiasny K.
      • Puschner-Auer G.
      • et al.
      Structural changes and functional control of the tick-borne encephalitis virus glycoprotein E by the heterodimeric association with the protein prM.
      Virus genome replication occurs in discrete domains within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Virus assembly occurs at the ER, and virions are exocytosed via Golgi-derived secretory vesicles.
      • Mackenzie J.M.
      • Jones M.K.
      • Westaway E.G.
      Markers for trans-Golgi membranes and the intermediate compartment localize to induced membranes with distinct replication functions in flavivirus-infected cells.

      Epidemiology

      Following the bite of a mosquito, usually A aegypti or A albopictus,
      • Halstead S.B.
      Pathogenesis of dengue: challenges to molecular biology.
      DENV can cause a range of mild-to-severe illnesses. The mosquito eradication program, which was officially discontinued in the United States in 1970, gradually weakened elsewhere, and the mosquito began to reinfest countries from which it had been eradicated. Consequently, the geographic distribution of A aegypti in 2002 was much wider than that before the eradication program and there was a corresponding increase in dengue infections. There are 4 distinct serotypes of DENV. Primary infection with one DENV serotype provides lifelong immunity to that specific serotype. However, when an individual is infected with a different serotype of DENV, there is an increased risk of severe dengue disease.
      • Solomon T.
      • Mallewa M.
      Dengue and other emerging flaviviruses.
      This can occur with all 4 serotypes; therefore, in regions with multiple endemic serotypes, the risk of severe disease is higher.

      Pathogenesis

      The pathogenesis of DHF/DSS, the most severe form of DENV infection, reflects a complex interplay of the host immune response and the viral determinants of virulence.
      • Halstead S.B.
      Pathogenesis of dengue: challenges to molecular biology.
      • Rothman A.L.
      Dengue: defining protective versus pathologic immunity.
      • Rothman A.L.
      • Ennis F.A.
      Immunopathogenesis of Dengue hemorrhagic fever.
      Epidemiologic studies have suggested an immune system linkage, because there is an increased risk of DHF with secondary DENV infection and in children within the first year of life born to DENV-immune mothers.
      • Halstead S.B.
      • Simasthien P.
      Observations related to the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever. II. Antigenic and biologic properties of dengue viruses and their association with disease response in the host.
      • Halstead S.B.
      • Nimmannitya S.
      • Cohen S.N.
      Observations related to pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever. IV. Relation of disease severity to antibody response and virus recovered.
      • Halstead S.B.
      Global epidemiology of dengue hemorrhagic fever.
      • Kliks S.C.
      • Nimmanitya S.
      • Nisalak A.
      • et al.
      Evidence that maternal dengue antibodies are important in the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants.
      From these observations, the hypothesis of antibody-dependent immune enhancement (ADE) of infection emerged. In support of the ADE pathogenesis concept, antibody enhancement of DENV infection in monocytes in vitro correlated with increased risk of DHF,
      • Kliks S.C.
      • Nimmanitya S.
      • Nisalak A.
      • et al.
      Evidence that maternal dengue antibodies are important in the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants.
      • Kliks S.C.
      • Nisalak A.
      • Brandt W.E.
      • et al.
      Antibody-dependent enhancement of dengue virus growth in human monocytes as a risk factor for dengue hemorrhagic fever.
      and peak viremia was increased in patients with severe secondary DENV infection.
      • Libraty D.H.
      • Endy T.P.
      • Houng H.S.
      • et al.
      Differing influences of virus burden and immune activation on disease severity in secondary dengue-3 virus infections.
      • Vaughn D.W.
      • Green S.
      • Kalayanarooj S.
      • et al.
      Dengue viremia titer, antibody response pattern, and virus serotype correlate with disease severity.
      Differences in specific genetic determinants among viral isolates
      • Leitmeyer K.C.
      • Vaughn D.W.
      • Watts D.M.
      • et al.
      Dengue virus structural differences that correlate with pathogenesis.
      • Cologna R.
      • Rico-Hesse R.
      American genotype structures decrease dengue virus output from human monocytes and dendritic cells.
      • Pryor M.J.
      • Carr J.M.
      • Hocking H.
      • et al.
      Replication of dengue virus type 2 in human monocyte-derived macrophages: comparisons of isolates and recombinant viruses with substitutions at amino acid 390 in the envelope glycoprotein.
      may also affect virulence, because some DENV strains fail to cause severe disease.
      • Watts D.M.
      • Porter K.R.
      • Putvatana P.
      • et al.
      Failure of secondary infection with American genotype dengue 2 to cause dengue haemorrhagic fever.
      • Messer W.B.
      • Vitarana U.T.
      • Sivananthan K.
      • et al.
      Epidemiology of dengue in Sri Lanka before and after the emergence of epidemic dengue hemorrhagic fever.
      Finally, a pathologic cytokine response that occurs after extensive T-cell activation may contribute to the capillary leak syndrome associated with DHF.
      • Rothman A.L.
      • Ennis F.A.
      Immunopathogenesis of Dengue hemorrhagic fever.
      Elevated levels of cytokines, including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-γ, and interleukin (IL)-10, to some extent correlate with severe disease
      • Green S.
      • Vaughn D.W.
      • Kalayanarooj S.
      • et al.
      Early immune activation in acute dengue illness is related to development of plasma leakage and disease severity.
      • Hober D.
      • Poli L.
      • Roblin B.
      • et al.
      Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in dengue-infected patients.
      • Hober D.
      • Nguyen T.L.
      • Shen L.
      • et al.
      Tumor necrosis factor alpha levels in plasma and whole-blood culture in dengue-infected patients: relationship between virus detection and pre- existing specific antibodies.
      • Hober D.
      • Delannoy A.S.
      • Benyoucef S.
      • et al.
      High levels of sTNFR p75 and TNF alpha in dengue-infected patients.
      • Bethell D.B.
      • Flobbe K.
      • Cao X.T.
      • et al.
      Pathophysiologic and prognostic role of cytokines in dengue hemorrhagic fever.
      ; and disease severity has been associated with activation of CD8+ T cells and the expansion of serotype-reactive low-affinity DENV-specific T cells that produce high levels of vasoactive cytokines.
      • Mongkolsapaya J.
      • Duangchinda T.
      • Dejnirattisai W.
      • et al.
      T cell responses in dengue hemorrhagic fever: are cross-reactive T cells suboptimal?.
      • Mongkolsapaya J.
      • Dejnirattisai W.
      • Xu X.N.
      • et al.
      Original antigenic sin and apoptosis in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever.
      • Green S.
      • Pichyangkul S.
      • Vaughn D.W.
      • et al.
      Early CD69 expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes from children with dengue hemorrhagic fever.
      • Zivna I.
      • Green S.
      • Vaughn D.W.
      • et al.
      T cell responses to an HLA-B07-restricted epitope on the dengue NS3 protein correlate with disease severity.
      • Bashyam H.S.
      • Green S.
      • Rothman A.L.
      Dengue virus-reactive CD8+ T cells display quantitative and qualitative differences in their response to variant epitopes of heterologous viral serotypes.

      Clinical presentations

      Dengue fever may present in many forms: as an undifferentiated febrile illness with a maculopapular rash, particularly in children, as flulike symptoms, or as classic Dengue with 2 or more symptoms, such as fever, headache, bone or joint pain, muscular pain, rash, pain behind the eyes, and petechial hemorrhaging. Often, there is prolonged fatigue and depression. During dengue epidemics, hemorrhagic complications may also appear, such as bleeding from the gums, nosebleeds, and bruising. Case fatalities due to DF are low, whereas DHF mortality is fairly high. There is no specific treatment for dengue fever except for symptomatic treatment, rest, and rehydration. Recognizing the warning signs and symptoms of dengue infection are critical for appropriate diagnosis and treatment (Fig. 4).
      Figure thumbnail gr4
      Fig. 4Warning signs of dengue infection.
      Courtesy of CDC, available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/dengue.
      DHF is characterized by spontaneous bleeding, plasma leakage, fever, and thrombocytopenia. Four clinical manifestations need to be observed to be classified as DHF. These include (1) fever; (2) hemorrhagic episodes with the presence of at least one of the following: a positive tourniquet test result (also called a capillary fragility test: a clinical diagnostic method to determine a patient's hemorrhagic tendency and assess fragility of capillary walls); petechiae, ecchymoses, or purpura; or bleeding from mucosa, gastrointestinal tract, injection sites, or others; (3) plasma leakage due to increased capillary permeability; and (4) thrombocytopenia (100,000/mm3 or less). Moderate-to-marked thrombocytopenia with concurrent hemoconcentration is a distinctive clinical laboratory finding of DHF. However, to distinguish DHF from DF, an observation of plasma leakage manifested by a rising hematocrit value (ie, hemoconcentration) must be observed (Fig. 5).
      Figure thumbnail gr5
      Fig. 5Petechial hemorrhages from a dengue infected patient.
      Courtesy of CDC, available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/dengue.
      The normal course of DHF lasts between 7 to 10 days, and with appropriate intensive maintenance of the circulating fluid volume, mortality may be reduced to less than 1%. Only severe DF and DHF cases should be hospitalized. Serologic tests are necessary to confirm cases of dengue. However, these tests may take several days.
      • Schwartz E.
      • Mileguir F.
      • Grossman Z.
      • et al.
      Evaluation of ELISA-based sero-diagnosis of dengue fever in travelers.
      • Schwartz E.
      • Moskovitz A.
      • Potasman I.
      • et al.
      Changing epidemiology of dengue fever in travelers to Thailand.
      Developing countries may not have the resources to perform these expensive confirmatory assays, and therefore, many suspected cases of dengue are not fully diagnosed. In severe cases of DHF, the patient's condition may suddenly deteriorate after a few days of fever; the temperature drops, followed by signs of circulatory failure; and the patient may rapidly go into a critical state of shock (dengue shock syndrome), dying within 12 to 24 hours or quickly recovering following appropriate volume replacement therapy Box 2.
      Grades of DHF
      • All 4 grades must be met for a diagnosis of DHF.
      • Grade 1: Fever and nonspecific constitutional symptoms and positive tourniquet test result
      • Grade 2: Grade 1 manifestations plus spontaneous bleeding.
      • Grade 3a: Incipient shock with signs of circulatory failure.
      • Grade 4a: Profound shock with undetectable pulse and blood pressure.
      a Grades 3 and 4 are Dengue Shock Syndrome.
      DSS is the most severe form of DHF and is characterized by the presence of all 4 DHF clinical manifestations and circulatory failure. All 3 manifestations of circulatory failure must be present: rapid and weak pulse; narrow pulse pressure or hypotension for the patient's age; and cold, clammy skin and altered mental state.

      Diagnosis

      Establishing a laboratory diagnosis of dengue infection is critical for diagnosis of dengue. A major challenge for disease surveillance and case diagnosis is that the dengue viruses produce asymptomatic infections and a spectrum of clinical illness ranging from a mild, nonspecific febrile illness to fatal hemorrhagic disease. Important risk factors of DHF include the strain and serotype of the infecting virus and the age, immune status, and genetic predisposition of the patient. The most common method of detecting the virus is to propagate virus from serum in cell culture or detect antidengue antibodies by serology. Virus can be cultured in vitro or by detection of viral RNA and specific dengue virus antigens. Countries that do not have access to sophisticated laboratory tests rely on identification of early clinical or simple laboratory indicators that can provide a reliable diagnosis of dengue before hospitalization. Early distinction between dengue and other febrile illnesses could help identify patients that should be monitored for signs of DHF.

      Differential diagnosis

      Febrile illnesses, such as measles, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), can produce symptoms similar to DF.
      • Flannery B.
      • Pereira M.M.
      • Velloso L.D.F.
      • et al.
      Referral pattern of leptospirosis cases during a large urban epidemic of dengue.
      • Watt G.
      • Jongsakul K.
      • Chouriyagune C.
      • et al.
      Differentiating dengue virus infection from scrub typhus in Thai adults with fever.
      • Karande S.
      • Gandhi D.
      • Kulkarni M.
      • et al.
      Concurrent outbreak of leptospirosis and dengue in Mumbai, India, 2002.
      • Dietz V.J.
      • Nieburg P.
      • Gubler D.J.
      • et al.
      Diagnosis of measles by clinical case definition in dengue-endemic areas: implications for measles surveillance and control.
      • Wilder-Smith A.
      • Earnest A.
      • Paton N.I.
      Use of simple laboratory features to distinguish the early stage of severe acute respiratory syndrome from dengue fever.
      • Wilder-Smith A.
      • Foo W.
      • Earnest A.
      • et al.
      Seroepidemiology of dengue in the adult population of Singapore.
      At presentation, these illnesses may share similar clinical features, including headache, myalgia, and rash Box 3.
      Differential diagnosis of dengue infection
      • Influenza
      • Measles
      • Rubella
      • Malaria
      • Typhoid fever
      • Leptospirosis
      • Meningococcemia
      • Rickettsial infections
      • Bacterial sepsis
      • Other viral hemorrhagic fevers

      Treatment and long-term outcomes

      There are no specific antivirals that can eliminate the virus from an infected individual. However, supportive care and treatment can be effective in treating DF. Paracetamol and other antipyretics can be used to treat fever. Bone pain should be treated by analgesics or painkilling tablets. During episodes of DHF/DSS, the mortality rate in the absence of hospitalization can be as high as 50%. With proper treatment, such as intravenous fluid replacement, the mortality rate is greatly reduced.

      Vaccines and immunity

      Multiple correlates of protection have been described for dengue. However, the primary correlate seems to be long-term homotypic protection.
      • Sabin A.B.
      Research on dengue during World War II.
      • Halstead S.B.
      Etiologies of the experimental dengues of Siler and Simmons.
      Most protective antibodies are directed at the surface E glycoprotein.
      • Kaufman B.M.
      • Summers P.L.
      • Dubois D.R.
      • et al.
      Monoclonal antibodies against dengue 2 virus E-glycoprotein protect mice against lethal dengue infection.
      • Bray M.
      • Zhao B.T.
      • Markoff L.
      • et al.
      Mice immunized with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing dengue 4 virus structural proteins with or without nonstructural protein NS1 are protected against fatal dengue virus encephalitis.
      However, antibodies to the M and NS1 proteins show some protective efficacy.
      • Kaufman B.M.
      • Summers P.L.
      • Dubois D.R.
      • et al.
      Monoclonal antibodies for dengue virus prM glycoprotein protect mice against lethal dengue infection.
      Passively transferring antibodies from seroconverted animals results in decreased infection and disease following challenge.
      • Kaufman B.M.
      • Summers P.L.
      • Dubois D.R.
      • et al.
      Monoclonal antibodies against dengue 2 virus E-glycoprotein protect mice against lethal dengue infection.
      • Kaufman B.M.
      • Summers P.L.
      • Dubois D.R.
      • et al.
      Monoclonal antibodies for dengue virus prM glycoprotein protect mice against lethal dengue infection.
      In addition, maternal antibodies decrease disease in infants.
      • Kliks S.C.
      • Nimmanitya S.
      • Nisalak A.
      • et al.
      Evidence that maternal dengue antibodies are important in the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever in infants.
      • Pengsaa K.
      • Luxemburger C.
      • Sabchareon A.
      • et al.
      Dengue virus infections in the first 2 years of life and the kinetics of transplacentally transferred dengue neutralizing antibodies in thai children.
      Using in vitro neutralization assays, antibodies directed against the E protein prevent virus infection.
      • Russell P.K.
      • Nisalak A.
      • Sukhavachana P.
      • et al.
      A plaque reduction test for dengue virus neutralizing antibodies.
      Antibodies that block viral attachment or prevent fusion to target cells neutralize virus infection.
      • Crill W.D.
      • Roehrig J.T.
      Monoclonal antibodies that bind to domain III of dengue virus E glycoprotein are the most efficient blockers of virus adsorption to Vero cells.
      • Roehrig J.T.
      • Bolin R.A.
      • Kelly R.G.
      Monoclonal antibody mapping of the envelope glycoprotein of the dengue 2 virus, Jamaica.
      In addition to neutralization, antibodies that mediate cell-mediated cytotoxicity reduce virus infection in complement-independent
      • Garcia G.
      • Arango M.
      • Perez A.B.
      • et al.
      Antibodies from patients with dengue viral infection mediate cellular cytotoxicity.
      • Laoprasopwattana K.
      • Libraty D.H.
      • Endy T.P.
      • et al.
      Dengue Virus (DV) enhancing antibody activity in preillness plasma does not predict subsequent disease severity or viremia in secondary DV infection.
      and complement-dependent mechanisms.
      • Falgout B.
      • Bray M.
      • Schlesinger J.J.
      • et al.
      Immunization of mice with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing authentic dengue virus nonstructural protein NS1 protects against lethal dengue virus encephalitis.
      Cellular immune responses are generally weakly protective.
      • Calvert A.E.
      • Huang C.Y.
      • Kinney R.M.
      • et al.
      Non-structural proteins of dengue 2 virus offer limited protection to interferon-deficient mice after dengue 2 virus challenge.
      However, these responses are critical for viral clearance.
      • Bukowski J.F.
      • Kurane I.
      • Lai C.J.
      • et al.
      Dengue virus-specific cross-reactive CD8+ human cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
      • Kurane I.
      • Meager A.
      • Ennis F.A.
      Dengue virus-specific human T cell clones. Serotype crossreactive proliferation, interferon gamma production, and cytotoxic activity.
      Innate immune responses directed against NS proteins, such as NS4B (a putative IFN antagonist), seem to mediate viral escape.
      • Munoz-Jordan J.L.
      • Laurent-Rolle M.
      • Ashour J.
      • et al.
      Inhibition of alpha/beta interferon signaling by the NS4B protein of flaviviruses.
      Currently, no DENV vaccine is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Four related but serologically distinct DENVs can cause disease. Non-neutralizing, cross-reactive antibodies may contribute to DHF pathogenesis via antibody-dependent enhancement. Therefore, an effective vaccine must induce high-titer neutralizing antibodies against all 4 strains
      • Barrett A.D.
      Current status of flavivirus vaccines.
      • Halstead S.B.
      • Deen J.
      The future of dengue vaccines.
      ; failure to do so could increase the risk of severe disease on natural challenge. To circumvent this problem, tetravalent live-attenuated candidate vaccines are in varying stages of development.
      • Guirakhoo F.
      • Arroyo J.
      • Pugachev K.V.
      • et al.
      Construction, safety, and immunogenicity in nonhuman primates of a chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus tetravalent vaccine.
      • Huang C.Y.
      • Butrapet S.
      • Pierro D.J.
      • et al.
      Chimeric dengue type 2 (vaccine strain PDK-53)/dengue type 1 virus as a potential candidate dengue type 1 virus vaccine.
      • Durbin A.P.
      • Karron R.A.
      • Sun W.
      • et al.
      Attenuation and immunogenicity in humans of a live dengue virus type-4 vaccine candidate with a 30 nucleotide deletion in its 3'-untranslated region.
      • Markoff L.
      • Pang X.
      • Houng Hs H.S.
      • et al.
      Derivation and characterization of a dengue type 1 host range-restricted mutant virus that is attenuated and highly immunogenic in monkeys.
      • Bhamarapravati N.
      • Sutee Y.
      Live attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine.
      In clinical trials, tetravalent serologic responses were observed in some individuals, but many do not develop high titer neutralizing antibodies despite multiple immunizations.
      • Edelman R.
      • Wasserman S.S.
      • Bodison S.A.
      • et al.
      Phase I trial of 16 formulations of a tetravalent live-attenuated dengue vaccine.
      • Sun W.
      • Edelman R.
      • Kanesa-thasan N.
      • et al.
      Vaccination of human volunteers with monovalent and tetravalent live-attenuated dengue vaccine candidates.
      Additionally, each part of the tetravalent vaccine does not elicit high titer immune response leading to immunodominance. Subunit-based vaccines, as purified proteins or DNA plasmid, are alternative vaccine strategies. Repeated immunization of purified recombinant DENV domain III of the E protein (DIII) or DIII-encoding plasmids induced protective antibodies in mice, albeit at fairly low neutralizing titers.
      • Khanam S.
      • Etemad B.
      • Khanna N.
      • et al.
      Induction of neutralizing antibodies specific to dengue virus serotypes 2 and 4 by a bivalent antigen composed of linked envelope domains III of these two serotypes.
      • Mota J.
      • Acosta M.
      • Argotte R.
      • et al.
      Induction of protective antibodies against dengue virus by tetravalent DNA immunization of mice with domain III of the envelope protein.
      • Hermida L.
      • Rodriguez R.
      • Lazo L.
      • et al.
      A dengue-2 Envelope fragment inserted within the structure of the P64k meningococcal protein carrier enables a functional immune response against the virus in mice.
      • Simmons M.
      • Nelson W.M.
      • Wu S.J.
      • et al.
      Evaluation of the protective efficacy of a recombinant dengue envelope B domain fusion protein against dengue 2 virus infection in mice.
      • Simmons M.
      • Murphy G.S.
      • Hayes C.G.
      Short report: Antibody responses of mice immunized with a tetravalent dengue recombinant protein subunit vaccine.
      Live attenuated vaccines and nonreplicating vaccines, such as inactivated virus vaccines, viruslike particles, and DNA vaccines, have been developed for dengue (Table 1). These vaccines elicit protective neutralizing antibodies. These vaccines can elicit long-lasting immunity against the specific serotype of DENV. However, they are poorly cross-reactive against infection with another subtype of DENV.
      Table 1Experimental dengue virus vaccines
      TypeSponsorStage of Development
      Live attenuated
      TetravalentMahidol University/Sanofi PasteurPhase I
      TetravalentWRAIR/GSKPhase II
      Chimeric
      ChimeriVax (17D YF)Acambis/Sanofi PasteurPhase I
      DENV-2/4d30 (all serotypes)NIAID, NIHPhase I/II
      DENV-1US FDAPhase I
      DENV-2 (16,681, PDK53)CDC/InviragenPreclinical
      DNA
      Several approachesVarious
      (ie, Domain III, prM/E, NS1)NMRC/University of PittsburghPhase I/Preclinical
      Inactivated
      Several approachesWRAIRPreclinical
      Subvirion particles/viruslike particles
      Drosophila cellsHawaii BiotechPhase I
      Baculovirus (E, NS1)VariousPreclinical
      Replication-defective AV (E)RepliVax-UTMB/AcambisPreclinical
      Yeast (C/prM/E, E-IIBsAg)VariousPreclinical
      Escherichia coli (E, E-NS1)VariousPreclinical
      DNAUniversity of PittsburghPreclinical
      Subunit/recombinantVariousPreclinical
      Abbreviations: AV, adenovirus; CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; GSK, GlaxoSmithKline; NIAID, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; NIH, National Institutes of Health; UTMB, University of Texas Medical Branch; WRAIR, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research; YF, yellow fever.

      References

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