It was estimated that renal cell carcinoma (RCC) would be diagnosed in 32,000 patients in the United States in 2004, with 11,200 estimated deaths [
- Eble J.N.
- Sauter G.
- Epstein J.I.
- et al.
World Health Organization classification of tumours: pathology and genetics of tumors of the urinary system and male genital organs.
IARC Press, Lyon (France)2004
2]. The incidence and mortality rates for RCC have risen steadily for more than 20 years among both genders; these trends are not explained by the increased use of abdominal imaging alone [
- Jemal A.
- Tiwari R.C.
- Murray T.
- et al.
Cancer statistics 2004.
CA Cancer J Clin. 2004; 54: 8-29
]. Prognosis for patients who have RCC is related to several pathologic features, including the TNM classification and nuclear grade, which have been incorporated into prognostic algorithms by Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), and the authors' institution.
- Chow W.H.
- Devesa S.S.
- Warren J.L.
- et al.
Rising incidence of renal cell cancer in the United States.
JAMA. 1999; 281: 1628-1631
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